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This study examined the relationship between energy consumption, CO2 emission and population health in 13 SSA countries from 1982 to 2014 based on data availability. Two health measures including under five mortality rate and life expectancy at birth were employed. A granger causality test was conducted after estimating a panel VAR model. Variance decomposition analysis and the impulse response function were used to examine the dynamic interactions among the variables and the effect of shocks. The neutrality hypothesis was found between under five mortality and total energy consumption. However, decomposing energy, a unidirectional causality was found from under five mortality to electricity consumption. There was a unidirectional causality from life expectancy to fossil fuel consumption based on a joint significance. Fossil fuel consumption shocks had a negative impact on life expectancy and greatest impact on CO2 emission. Thus, policies towards improving life expectancy should target a reduction in fossil fuel demand through empowerment strategies and incentives to encourage a substantial transition to electricity consumption.